Technologies exist to produce low carbon steel, cement, chemicals and other energy-intensive products exist, but they do not yet find sufficient demand in the marketplace. Low-carbon technologies are significantly more expensive than high-carbon conventional products. In the absence of a competitive global carbon price, they will need government support such as government-induced demand and some element of protection from competing high-carbon cheaper substitutes. Which sectors would be concerned? What will this mean for European trade policy and the global trade system? Can support for low-carbon technologies be made WTO-compatible?